The official state religion is Catholicism, but over the last four decades Protestant missionary activity has reduced the proportion of people who identify themselves as Catholic from over 90 percent in to less than 70 percent in DeWind, Josh, and David H. Residents attach tremendous importance to the expulsion of the French in , an event that made Haiti the first independently black-ruled nation in the world, and only the second country in the Western Hemisphere to achieve independence from imperial Europe. Visitors to a household never leave empty-handed or without drinking coffee, or at least not without an apology. Some wealthy citizens think of themselves as French, but most residents identify themselves as Haitian and there is a strong sense of nationalism. Rituals and Holy Places.
In , thirty-five thousand slaves rose in an insurrection, razed a thousand plantations, and took to the hills. Haitians say excuse me eskize-m when entering another person's space. Approximately 80 percent of permanent migrants come from the educated middle and upper classes, but very large numbers of lower-class Haitians temporarily migrate to the Dominican Republic and Nassau Bahamas to work at low-income jobs in the informal economy. Some scholars see this apparent color dichotomy as evidence of racist social division, but it also can be explained by historical circumstances and the immigration and intermarrying of the light-skinned elite with white merchants from Lebanon, Syria, Germany, the Netherlands, Russia, other Caribbean countries, and, to a far lesser extent, the United States. People make a crude but highly nutritious sugar paste called rapadou. Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Food and Economy Food in Daily Life. The Haitian has become primarily domestic, and production is almost entirely for domestic consumption. Violence is rare but once started often escalates quickly to bloodshed and serious injury. Secular Celebrations Associated with the beginning of the religious season of Lent, Carnival is the most popular and active festival, featuring secular music, parades, dancing in the streets, and abundant consumption of alcohol. An early eighteenth century kingdom ruled by Henri Christophe prospered and thrived in the north, and from to Haiti ruled the entire island. Brushing the teeth is a universal practice. Sellers of land generally need cash to finance either a life crisis event healing or burial ritual or a migratory venture. Rural women are commonly thought by outsiders to be severely repressed. Family members come from far away to sleep at the house, and friends and neighbors congregate in the yard. History and Ethnic Relations Emergence of a Nation. There have been numerous constitutions. Enquete Mortalite, Morbidite et Utilisation des Services, — There is a thriving internal market that is characterized at most levels by itinerant female traders who specialize in domestic items such as produce, tobacco, dried fish, used clothing, and livestock. There has always been a wide economic gulf between the masses and a small, wealthy elite and more recently, a growing middle class. Craftsmen have given these new houses traditional gingerbread qualities by using embedded pebbles, cut stones, preformed cement relief, rows of shaped balusters, concrete turrets, elaborately contoured cement roofing, large balconies, and artistically welded wrought-iron trimming and window bars reminiscent of the carved fringe that adorned classic gingerbread houses. Kinship organization differs from that of the industrial world with regard to ancestors and godparentage. Estimates of HIV among those ages twenty-two to forty-four years are as high as 11 percent, and estimates among prostitutes in the capital are as high as 80 percent. Within each trade there are subdivisions of specialists. One is equally a member of one's father's and mother's kin groups. In , the Dominican dictator Rafael Trujillo ordered the massacre of an estimated fifteen to thirty-five thousand Haitians living in the Dominican Republic.
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